Is the next article.
The back piece should be as deep as the quarter at the heel seam, and cut square at top, about an inch and a half wide, and then cut it on both sides from the top downward with a short curve at first, and then with a gradual slope to the ends, letting them be about three quarters of an inch deep: then let the side linings be cut even at the ends, to meet the back piece, and of the same depth with it at the ends. Then lay the vamp and quarter flat on a board, and lay the lining on them from where the end of the back piece joins; then mark it in a gradual inclining slope from the end to the opening of the vamp; and if the vamp have no lap lining, there the lining must be notched, and a sloping bit let up the opening about half an inch long, and from the opening of the vamp let the lining be cut in a gradual slope to the toe, and at the toe to be about half an inch wide. The others are to be cut to this, and to be pared at the edges that are to be sewed if the leather, be thick. The sewing of the lining of strong shoes is done with a wax thread and an awl. The thread should be made of three cords of flax, and the awl should be rather flat and crooked at the point. The side lining should not be sewed above two or three stitches on the vamp, beyond the quarter, for it will be the means of breaking the vamp at the joints. Let the. awl enter the lining first, as it can bear the fullest part of the awl better than the upper.
In shoes that are made in cities and large towns the lining is sewed with silk, and is the province of the needle; but the same order in the sewing should be observed as in that of the awl.
Now we shall proceed to the
making of a
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