Excerpts from [Galfridus Anglicus or Galfrisus
Promptorium Parvulorum [A.k.a.
Medulla Gramatice], ca. 1440 [earliest known printing 1499].
Apparently from the Abby of Lynn.
- Galfridus, Anglicus. Promptorium Parvulorum Sive Clericorum: Lexicon
Anglo-Latinum Princeps. 3 vols. Works of the Camden Society; 1st Ser., No.
25, 54., ed. Albert Way. London: Sumptibus Societatis Camdenensis, 1843-1865.
- ________. Promptorium Parvulorum, 1499 English Linguistics,
1500-1800: A Collection of Facsimile Reprints. Menston: Scolar Press, 1968.
- ________. The Promptorium Parvulorum. The First English-Latin
Dictionary. Early English Text Society. Extra Series, No.102, ed. Anthony
Lawson Mayhew. New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1973.
[Note: The editorial notes here reflect early
Victorian interpretations and should be viewed with caution.]
- AGGLOT, or an aglet to lace wyth alle. Aeus, actdus, (acula,
a lace or poynt, fer. To agglet a poynt, or set on
an agglet vpon a poynt or lace, ferrer.
PALSG. Wyll you set
none agglettes vpon your poyntes? enferrer voz
esguylettes.” This word denotes properly the tag, but is
often used to signify the lace to which it was attached. “Myn aglet, mon
laeset, a point,
la ferrure d’un lasset.”
R. PYNSON, Good boke to lerne to speke French.
- BARKYN lethyr. Frunio, tanno, tannio,
- BARKYNGE of lethyr (lethyr or ledyr,
- BLEKE (blecke, P.) Atramentum.
Horman says, “Wrytters ynke shulde be fyner than blatche,
lectius esset sutorio.” “Bleche for souters,
PALSG. A.S. blæc,
- BLEKKYN wythe
bleke (Blacken with blecke. P.)
- BOTE for a mannys legge (bote or cokyr,
H. coker, P.) Bota, ocrea.
See BOTEW, and
COKYR, botew. “Boote of
Coturnus, botula, crepita.
- (BRUSTYL of a swyne, K.P. Seta.)
- CHAUNCEMELE (chavncemely, K.)
Subtelaris, C. P. CATH.
vnder the hele.” ORT.
VOC. A similar explanation is given in the
Catholicon, with this addition,
“Sotular autem vel sotularis
nihil aliud est, ut
dicit Magister Bene. sed aliqui
- CHAUNCEPE, or schoynge horne (chaucepe,
P.) Parcopollex, CATH.
The Catholicon gives the following explanation,
which is properly a thimble: chauncepe appears to be a
-corruption of the French chaussepied.
- CLOWTE of a schoo, Pictasium,
“A clowte of yrne, crusta, crude ferrea, et cetera ubi
plate.” CATH. ANG. In Norfolk the terms cleat and clout signify an iron
plate ‘with which a shoe is strengthened. FORBY. Ang. Sax. cleot, clut, pittacium,
lamina. Palsgrave gives the verb
“to cloute, carreler, rateceller. I
had nede go cloute my shoes, they be
broken at the heles.”
- CLOWTER, or cobelere. Sartorius, rebroccator (pictaciarius,
- CLOWTYD, as shoone, or oþer thyngys of ledyr.
- CLOWTYNGE, or coblynge.
- (CLOWTYNGE of shone,
- COBLER, Supra in
- COCUR, boote (cokyr bote,
H.P.) Ocrea, coturnus,
KYLW. C. F.
The coarse half-boot used by rustics was called a cocur, and the term
cocker is still used in the North Of England, but properly signifies gaiters or
leggings, and even coarse stockings without feet, used as gaiters. In a MS. of
the Medulla in the Editor’s
is rendered “a carl stoghe,” (in the Ortus
“a chorles shoo,”) ‘with this additional explanation,
“vel a Cokyr,
ut dicit Campus forum.” Piers Ploughman speaks of his “cokeres,” Vision, line 3915, and they may be seen
in the curious drawing in a MS. of the Poem in the Library Trin. Call. Cant, an engraving from which
is given in Shaw’s Dresses. Elyot gives “Carpatinæ, ploughmen’s bootes
made of vntanned lether, they maye be called cokers.
Peronatus, he that weareth
rawe lether shoen, boteux, or cokars lyke a ploughman.” Librarie, l542.
- CODE, sowters wex (coode, H.P.) Coresina
Among numerous substances, resin, grease, and herbs, mentioned in the curious
directions for making a good “entreet,” or plaster to heal
wounds, occurs “Spaynisch code.”
Sloan. MS. 100, f. 17.
- COKYR, botew, supra.
- (COKYRMETE, K.H. Cenum, lutum, CATH.)
This singular term was given most erroneously in the
printed editions of the Promptorium; Pynson printed it Ckyrmete, Julian
Notary Chyimete, and W. de Worde Chymette. it appears to relate to the kind of
rustic boot called here a cocur, and cokyr; but the whimsical application of
such a term to clay is wholly unaccountable.
- CORDWANE, ledyr (cordwale lethir,
Chaucer, in the Rime of Sir Thopas, mentions “his shoon of cordewane;” and in
the Boke for Travellers Caxton speaks of “hydes of kyen whereof men make lether;
of fellis of gheet, or of the bukke make men good cordewan; of shepes fellis may
be made the basenne” The kind of leather to which this name was applied was
originally prepared at Corduba, and thence, according to Junius and Menage,
received the appellation.
- ELSYN’ (elsyng, K.)
This word occurs in the gloss on Gautier de Bibelesworth, Arund. MS. 220,
where a buckled girdle is described:
“Een isy doyt le hardiloun (þe tunnge)
Passer par tru de subiloun
(a bore of an alsene).”
An elsyne, acus,subula.” CATH. ANG.
“Sibula, an elsyn,
an alle, or a bodkyn.” ORTUS. In the Inventory of the goods of a merchant
at Newcastle, A.D. 1571, occur “vj doss’ elsen heftes, 12d. j clowte and
½ a c elson blades, viijs. viijd.
xiij clowtes of taller nedles,” &c. Wills and Inv. published by the Surtees
Society, i., 361. The term is derived from the French alène; “elson for cordwayners, alesne.”
PALSG. In Yorkshire, and some other parts of England an awl is still
called an elsen.
- GALACHE, or galoche, vndyr solynge of mannys fote (galegge,
or galoch, s. vndirshone, K. vnderschoyinge,
Crepitum, crepita, C.F. obstringillus,
Sunt obstringilli qui per plantas consuti sunt, et ex superiori parte cormigiá contrahuntur.”
CATH. The galache was a sort
of patten fastened to the foot by cross latchets, and worn by men as early as
the time of Edw. III. Allusion is made to it by Chaucer.
“Ne were worthy to unbocle his galoche.” Squire’s Tale, 10, 869.
In the inventory of the effects of Hen. V. taken A.D. 1423, mention occurs of
“j peir de galaqes faitz d’estreyn, iv d.;” but it is not easy to
understand how straw should be a proper material for the purpose. See Rot. Parl.
cv. 329. In Sir John Howard’s Household Book, A.D. 1465, p. 314, are named both
galaches and pynsons, which last are in the Promptorium explained to be socks.
See Household Expenses in England. This kind of shoe was occasionally an article
of luxury and ostentatious display, which probably suggested the allusion that
occurs in the Vision of Piers Ploughman, where one is described as coming
eagerly, as if to be dubbed a knight,
To geten hym gilte spores,
Or galoches y-couped.” line 12,099.
The term “y-couped” seems to imply the extravagant fashion of the long-peaked
a coppid shoo.”
ORTUS. In the reign of Edward IV. a statute was
passed, by which the higher classes alone were permitted to wear shoes, “galoges,”
or boots, with a peak longer than 2 inches (Rot. Parl. v. 505, 566;
Stat, of Realm, II. 415) but, from certain allusions in ancient romance, it
would seem that the fashion was, by the usage of a much earlier period,
permitted to none under the degree of a knight. See Sir Degore, 700; Torrent of
Portugal, 1193, &c. The curious drawings in Cott. MS. Julius, E. iv. (t. Hen.
VI.), one of which, representing King John, has been given in Shaw’s Dresses,
exhibit the galache in its most extravagant form. “Solea, a shoe called
a galage or paten, whiche bathe nothynge on the fete, but onely lachettes.”
ELYOT. “Gallozza, a kind of wooden patins, startops, gallages, or
stilts. Cospi, wooden pattins, or pantofles, shoes with wooden soles,
startups or galages,” &c. FLORIO. “Galoche, a woodden shoe or
patten made all of a peece, without any latchet or ty of leather, and worne by
the poore clowne in winter.” COTG. See Spenser, Sheph. Cal. Febr. and Sept. In
the Wardrobe Book of Prince Henry, A.D. 1607, are mentioned “1 pair of
golossians, 6s. 16 gold buckles with pendants and toungs to buckle a pair of
golosses.” Archæol. xi. 93.
- (GALLOCHE, supra in GALACHE. Callopedium,
- HELE of þe fote.
- LACHET of a schoo. Tenea,
UG. V. in T.
- LESTE, sowtarys forme.
CATH. formipedia, DICC. calopodia,
- ORGONE. Organum.
The precise period when the use of the organ was
introduced into Britain has not been ascertained; it is supposed to have been
first used in France in 757. Compare Ann. Fr. breves; Ann. Francorum;
and Eginh. Ann. Pepini; which concur in naming that year as the date of the
introduction. Eginhard also mentions the arrival in France of a priest from
Venice, who was able to construct organs, in 826; but the instrument does not
appear to have been generally used in Western Europe before the Xth cent. At
that period Elphegus, Bp. Winchester, constructed an organ, the melodious sounds
of which are highly commended in the verses of Wolstan. In the time of Edgar,
St. Dunstan, who died 988, caused
“organa” to be constructed for the church of Glastonbury, according to Joh. Glaston. and in that of Malmesbury, where he bestowed
“organa, ubi per ereas fistulas musicis mensuris elaborates
dudum conceptas follig vomit anxius auras.” W. Malmesb. Life of Aldhelm, Bp.
Shirburn, founder of Malmesbury Abbey. Numerous curious particulars are
recorded respecting the use of organs in England, as at St. Alban’s, in Cott.
MS. Nero, D. VII.; and Croyland, where there were
organa soleunia in introitu eccte.cie
supertua situate,” as well as smaller organs in the choir. Portable
instruments, called frequently regals, were much in use, and representations
occur in many illuminations and sculptures. A very curious representation of
the organ exists in Eadwine’s Psalter, Trin. Coil. Camb. R. 17 i. and has been
copied in Strutt’s Horda, I. p1. 33. Organs were imported from Flanders, as appears
by the Louth accounts, about the year 1500, Archæol. x. 91; the price of a pair
suitable to be set up in the rood-loft of that noble church being £13. 6s.
8d. It appears that the usual term, a pair of organs, has reference to
the double bellows whereby continuous sound was produced; or, according to Douce, to
their being formed with a double row of pipes. See O’Connor’s curious
observations on the early use of organs and psalmody in the Irish church, Hib.
Script. iv. 153.
- OVYR LETHYR of a schoo (ouerledyr,
Impedia, DICC. et
- PECYN, or set peeys to a thynge, or clowtyn.
Repecio,reb(r)occo, sarcto, CATH.
- REVVLYN. Aporio, C.S.
- PIKE, of a schoo. Liripium,
DICC. (liripipium, P.)
“A pyke of a
scho, or of a staffe,
CATH. ANG. Lliripipium usually denotes the hood
with a long appendage, which, as Knyghton describes it, was twisted around the
head; but here it seems to be synonymous with poleine, or cracowe, the proper
appellation whereby the singular long-peaked shoe, which was in fashion during
the early part of the XVth cent., was known. These terms are supposed to be
derived from the fashion having been introduced from Poland, and Cracow, its
metropolis, possibly by some of the suite of Anne of Bohemia, Queen of Ric. II.
Will. Malmsb. however, states that
among the effeminate habits of the times of Rufus, “usus catceorum cam arcuatis aculeis inventus:” the pouleines were also much in vogue
in France during the reign of Charles V. and forbidden in 1340 and 1365. The
monk of Evesham, in the Life of Rich. II. ed. Hearne, p. 53, relates the
indignity that was shown in the diocese of Oxford to the messenger of Abp.
Courtenay, in 1384, when he was compelled to eat the prelate’s mandate, seal and
all; but in retaliation the Archbishop’s adherents
cracowys de sotularilius ailiquorum de familia
Epi. Oxon. et ipsoe cracowis edere cogerunt.”
a treatise on the virtues of plants, written about the same time, the seed, or
cod, of the Cassia fistula is
described as of the “gretnesse of a saucestre, and
shap most lyk þe pyk of a crakow sho.”
Arund. MS. 42, f. 60, vo. At the period when the
Promptorium was compiled such peaked shoes were worn of an extravagant length,
and the fashion was restricted by the statutes of apparel, during the reign of
Edw. IV. when the length of “pykes
of shoen or boteux” was cut down to two inches. See Parl.
Rolls, V. 505, 566; Stat, of Realm. Although no early sumptuary
statute is found whereby the use of such shoes was restricted to knights or
persons of estate, they are mentioned repeatedly, as if accounted specially a
part of knightly equipment. Thus in the description of the comely attire of Sir Degore, it is said, “His shone was croked as a knighte.” v. 700. This Romance is
supposed to have been written early in the XIIIth cent. The young Torrent of
Portugal is described
as craving knighthood from the King of Provens, who bids him engage in a feat of
arms, “and wyn the shone,” v. 1117; having acquitted himself manfully, becomes
at “myd-mete,” and presents himself at the deis in his squire’s habit, “withoute
couped shone,” to claim the guerdon; v. 1193. Compare this passage with Vis, of
Piers Ph v. 12,099, where a description occurs of one who comes, as if to a
just, after the manner of a knight who comes to be dubbed, to win
his gilt spurs, “or galoches y-couped.”
“Milieus, a coppid shoo.” ORTUS. Ang.-Sax. cop,
A large number of poleine shoes, with the
wooden pattens which were warn with them during the XVth cent., in accordance
with the fashion represented in the drawing in Cott. MS. Julius E. IV.
designated as King John, and given in Shaw’s Dresses, were discovered in London,
Nov. 1843, and are in the possession of Mr. C. R. Smith, F.S.A.
- PYNSONE.3 Tenella, cancer,
KYLW. (manualis, C.F., H.P.)
pedribriomita, a pes, et brios,
mensura, et mitos, gutta; quasi calceus guttatus” CATH. ANG.
“Pedibomita, Anglice a pynson.”
take me my pynsouns.” Harl. MS. 219, f.
151, vo. “ Pynson sho, caffignon.” PALSG. Master Stanbridge
“a pynson,” and Elyot gives “
Calceamesa, a pynson showe, or socke
;“ to which
Gouldman adds another synonym, “a
pinson or pump,
calceamen,” &c. Duwes, in his
Introductorie, composed to teach the Princess Mary the French tongue, gives
“womens raiments—the pynson showes,
The derivation of this term is very obscure; it denotes,
possibly, the pumps, on high unsoled shoes of thin leather, which were commonly
worn with pattens about the time when the Promptorium was compiled. A large
collection of these, recently discovered in London, are in the possession of C.
R. Smith, Esq. F.S.A. Pinsons are mentioned in the Howard Household Book, p.
- PINSONE, sokke. Pedipomita.
- SHAPYNG KNYFE, of sowtare: Ansorium, -ij;
- SCHYPPE, boote: Barca, -ce; Carabus, -bi
- SCHYN of a legge: Crus, -ris; CATH.
- SCHOO, mannys foote hyllynge: Sotularis; Calceus
- SCHO for byschopys: Sandalium
- SCHO, clowte: lampedium, -ij: limpedium
- SCHODE, as men: calciatus, -a, -um.
- SOKKE: Soccus, -i; CATH.
Summa, sive opusculum deicilium vocabularium
biblie, or Lexicon sive vocabularium biblie
Januensis, Catholicon, or Summa.
Campo Florum/Campus Florum (or Thomas Wallys)
Garland/Johannes de Garlondia, in Diccionario Scolastico
Garland/Johannes de Garlondia, in Distigius
misteriorum qui dicitur Anglia que fulget,
Neccham, De nominibus utensilium
||Hugo of Pisa/Uguitio
in majori volumine
||Hugo of Pisa/Uguitio