The Tragikale Reigne of King Richard III

Notes compiled from numerous sources in an attempt to try to keep the events straight.  If you are looking for the Shakespeare, move on, this ain't it.

This page was created by Marc Carlson
It was last edited 9 June 2004



Dramatis Personae:

Major Players

Minor Players


Time:


Events

1483  
9 April Wednesday

Edward IV suddenly dies in Westminster (Croyland), and begins to lie in state
At some point after this, Hastings takes in Jane Shore as his mistress.
[Purportedly a retainer of Richard's living in London, upon hearing the news predicted Richard's rise (Weir Princes, 62; More)

10 April Thursday  
11 April Friday Although he is still at Ludlow, Prince Edward is proclaimed King in London
Probable date of Hasting's letter to Richard being sent.
Richard (at Middleham) hears of Edward IV's death
12 April Saturday

Richard writes a letter of condolence and submission to the Queen about this time (Croyland)
Richard writes a letter of submission to the Council about this time (Mancini) [These may well be the same letter]

13 April Sunday  
14 April Monday News of Edward IV's death reaches Prince Edward at Ludlow (Vergil), as does the letter telling Rivers to bring the new King back to London by 1 May (Weir Princes, 69).
News of Edward IV's death reaches Buckingham at Brecon/Brecknok about this time.
15 April Tuesday  
16 April Wednesday Edward writes to the Burgesses of Lynn (from Ludlow) telling them that he intends on leaving shortly for London (Mancini)
Earliest probable date of Richard's receiving Hasting's letter (Weir Princes, 69)
17 April Thursday

First day of funeral ceremonies in London.

18 April Friday  
19 April Saturday  
20 April Sunday Edward IV finally buried.
The Queen and Dorset ("Brother uterine to the King") meet with the Council.
Hastings sends a letter to Richard, warning of the Wydville plot (Mancini).
Richard leaves Middleton for York with a body of 300 men.
21 April Monday Richard arrives in York, where he holds a funeral service, swears his fealty to the young king, Edward V, and has nobles of York swear fealty as well.
Richard listed as "Protector" on the Patent Rolls Richard's letter reaches Buckingham about this time (Weir Princes, 72)
Buckingham sends Humphrey Persivall, his messenger, to pledge his support to Richard (More) [More says that Persivall rode first to York, then back to Brecon, then to Nottingham to meet with Richard. These are minimum distances of 175 and a 120 miles respectively, much of which is over rather mountainous terrain.]
22 April Tuesday  
23 April Wednesday

St. George's Day
Rivers holds Garter dinner at Ludlow.
Richard leaves York for Nottingham (Weir Princes, 72)

24 April Thursday Prince Edward, and Lord Rivers set out for London from Ludlow with 2000 men "to protect the prince." Also with them are Master (or Bishop?) John Alcock the Prince's Tutor, Edward's servant Vaughan, and Sir Richard Haute.
25 April Friday  
26 April Saturday Buckingham leaves Wales about this time with 300 men.
Richard arrives in Nottingham (Nottingham City Records). Here Humphrey Persivall delivers Buckingham's message, arranging to meet Richard in Northampton (More, Mancini). Richard writes to Edward to discuss how and where they are going to enter London.
27 April Sunday At the instigation of the Queen and her son, Richard Grey, the Council sets the date for Edward's coronation on 4 May. Also Edward's Will proclaiming Richard Protector is reversed by the Council in favor of the Wydvilles.
28 April Monday  
29 April Tuesday Sir Edward Wydville, newly appointed Admiral of the Fleet, puts to sea to move against French and Breton pirates in the Channel.
After a rapid ride from London to Northampton, Sir Richard Grey meets Rivers and Prince Edward at Northhampton and moves them to Stoney Stratford (Croyland).
Richard meets with Buckingham north of Northhampton, where all parties had prearranged to meet. Grey and Rivers return to Nottingham, where they meet with Richard and Buckingham. After a friendly dinner, during which Rivers suspected nothing to be amiss, Richard, Buckingham and Ratcliffe stay up discussing things. (Rous, More, Mancini, Vergil)
30 April Wednesday Rivers wakes up to find himself under arrest.
Richard hastens to Stoney Stratford, and greets Edward. Richard and Buckingham arrest Grey, Vaughan, and Haute. Most of Edward's attendants and servants, including Alcock are ordered to return home [Rivers is sent to Richard's estate at Sheriff Hutton, in Yorkshire, while Grey is sent to Middleham.] (More, Mancini, Vergil, Croyland)
Richard writes letters to the Council and to Sir Edmund Shaa, Lord Mayor of London, telling them that he "rescued" the young King (Mancini). Richard writes a letter to Hastings (More).
News of the arrests reaches London late in the day.
Dorset vanishes from view, possibly to Brittany; possibly from fear of Hastings (Vergil)
1 May Thursday

Sts Philip and Jacob the Apostle
Elizabeth Wydville enters Sanctuary with her children.
Hastings is "shaken" by Richard's actions and pulls together his friends at St. Pauls to Discuss what should be done (Vergil).

2 May Friday

Richard listed as "Protector" on the Patent Rolls.

3 May Saturday

Crouchmass
(Alternate date: Elizabeth Wydville enters Sanctuary with her children.)

4 May Sunday 1st scheduled day for Edward's Coronation. Richard and Edward arrive in London to a Requiem Mass. Richard swears oath to Edward. Edward moves into the Bishop's Palace, St. Paul's Courtyard, and Richard moves into Baynard's Castle.
5 May Monday  
6 May Tuesday  
7 May Wednesday  
8 May Thursday  
9 May Friday

Buckingham suggests that Edward take possession of the Tower.

10 May Saturday

Richard in London. The Council, at first possibly doubting Richard's intentions, meets. All of the Lords in London, Major, and Aldermen swear an oath of fealty to the young king. The coronation is pushed back to the 24th of June. The Council confirms Richard's Protector status. Bishop John Russell of Lincoln (author of Croyden Chronicles?) made Chancellor. Bishop Russell summons parliament for the 25th of June. Duke Henry of Buckingham receives and unprecedented grant of titles and positions.

11 May Sunday  
12 May Monday  
13 May Tuesday
14 May Wednesday

Richard orders ships out to arrest Sir Edward Wydville who is out pirate hunting.

15 May Thursday  
16 May Friday  
17 May Saturday  
18 May Sunday  
19 May Monday

Edward "takes full possession" of the Tower.

20 May Tuesday William, Lord Hastings is confirmed as Master of the Mint.
21 May Wednesday  
22 May Thursday  
23 May Friday  
24 May Saturday  
25 May Sunday  
26 May Monday  
27 May Tuesday  
28 May Wednesday  
29 May Thursday  
30 May Friday  
31 May Saturday  
1 June Sunday  
2 June Monday  
3 June Tuesday  
4 June Wednesday  
5 June Thursday Anne Neville, Richard's wife arrives in London. They move to Crosby Place/Crosby Hall, Bishopsgate.
6 June Friday  
7 June Saturday  
8 June Sunday Council Meeting. (Richard not present?) Stillington reveals news of Pre-contract. Negotiations with Queen in Sanctuary break down.
[It has been argued that Buckingham may have tried sounding out Hastings about this time about how he would feel with Richard (or maybe himself) as King. In response Hastings may have turned to the Wydvilles. This is no tangible proof of any of this other than Hasting's execution.]
9 June Monday Long meeting with the "Lords of Westminster" (Council?) about pre-contract. Morton present. Beginnings of "Hastings-Morton" plot?
10 June Tuesday Richard writes letter to the "Citizens of York" asking for troops (More?).
11 June Wednesday Richard sends letter to Lord Neville asking for troops (More?).
12 June Thursday Richard's man, Ratcliffe, leaves London for York with the letter of 10 June.
13 June Friday Richard enters a full Council meeting and charges the Queen and Jane Shore with practicing Sorcery against him. He has Hastings summarily executed as an accomplice to that sorcery, and charges other Conspirators (including Lord Stanley, Thomas Rotherham, Archbishop of York and John Morton, the Bishop of Ely) with Treason.
George Cely, London Merchant records some rumors including the "facts" that the Scots had invaded, the Bishop Ely was dead, and Hastings was Dead; as well as the "fears" that the King had been put to death, that the King's Brother, Richard of York, was in danger, the earl of Northumberland's life was threatened, and that the Duke of Gloucester was in peril (Cely).
Numerous witch trial sources indicated that Shore, the Bishop of Ely, the Queen, and the Countess of Richmond (Henry Tudor's mother)  were tried in an ecclesiastical court for using sorcery to try to harm Richard (see here for sources)
14 June Saturday  
15 June Sunday Richard's letter arrives in York
Elizabeth/Jane Shore is forced to do penance for her part in the Sorcery and working with Hastings., and is then sent to prison.
16 June Monday Richard surrounds Westminster with troops, threatening to seize Richard of York by force. Cardinal of Canterbury promises Duke of York's safety to Queen. Richard of York leaves Sanctuary, and is taken to be with his brother.
17 June Tuesday Writs of Supersedeas cancel Edward's coronation and the parliament scheduled for 25 June.
Orders are sent out to execute Rivers, Grey and the other Wydville adherents seized at Northhampton and Stoney Stratford.
18 June Wednesday  
19 June Thursday  
20 June Friday Tower garrisoned by Richard's troops. Princes are moved into innermost portions of the tower and dissapear from general view.
Richard claimed the title of King, and assumed the government (Croyland).
[Possible alternate date for Hasting's arrest and execution. This is a point of disagreement based on the fact that most of the chroniclers appear to put the execution after Richard's "liberating" Richard of York from Westminster. Also the records of the Mercer's amd Merchant adventurers appear to show Hastings alive on the 15th, also William Stoner's second letter (Alison Hanham).]
21 June Saturday "York" troops are sent out.
22 June Sunday According to some sources this was the 3rd and final planned date for Edward's Coronation. Word of the cancellation becomes public.
Dr. Shaw (Dr. Ralph Shaa), the Lord Mayor's brother, of Paul's Cross preaches about Edward's bastardy.  The existence of the pre-contract revealed publicly.
(Troops arrive in London from the north?)
Entry in Anlaby Cartulary states that Edward V died on this day (Pollard, 123) [and clearly his reign did].
23 June Monday After their trial, overseen by Ratcliff, Rivers & Grey (With Vaughn and Haute) are executed at Pontefract. Their bodies are thrown naked into a common grave
24 June Tuesday The Nativity of St. John the Baptist
Midsummer
2nd planned date for Edward's Coronation.
Buckingham spreads information about pre-contract to Guildhall meeting.
25 June Wednesday Unofficial assembly of Lords and Commons petition Richard at Bayard's Castle to assume the throne. Richard exibits surprise and reluctance.
Expected date of troops arrival from York.
[Possible alternate date of Rivers, et al, execution.]
26 June Thursday

Richard goes to Westminster where an assemblage of Nobles, Clerics and Burghers present an official petition. Richard takes the King's Bench, declaring himself to be "King".

27 June Friday Bishop John Russell of Lincoln is given the Great Seal and made Chancellor.
28 June Saturday Richard strips Richard of York of two of his titles.
A letter is sent to the Captain of Calais reminding him that his oath to Edward V is not valid (Pollard, 101).
29 June Sunday  
30 June Monday  
1 July Tuesday  
2 July Wednesday A northern army arrives in London with about 4000 men
3 July Thursday Anne returns to London from Middleham.
4 July Friday  
5 July Saturday Richard travels to Westminster
6 July Sunday Richard and Anne are crowned King and Queen by Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury at St. Peter in Westminster.
7 July Monday The Translation of St. Thomas the Martyr
Dominic Mancini returns to France about this time
8 July Tuesday  
9 July Wednesday  
10 July Thursday  
11 July Friday  
12 July Saturday  
13 July Sunday Buckingham receives grant of lands via a claim of descent.
14 July Monday  
15 July Tuesday Buckingham becomes Constable of England.
16 July Wednesday  
17 July Thursday  
18 July Friday Richard pays out money for care of the princes. (Wardrobe accounts ?)
19 July Saturday  
20 July Sunday Richard sets out from Windsor on a Progress to the North.
21 July Monday  
22 July Tuesday

St. Mary Magdalene
(Buckingham leaves Windsor for Gloucester)

23 July Wednesday

Richard reaches Reading

 

24 July Thursday  
25 July Friday  
26 July Saturday (Richard dines at Magdalene College, Oxford)
27 July Sunday  
28 July Monday  
29 July Tuesday Richard arrives at Gloucester, and meets with Buckingham.
Richard orders the trial of "certain persons" who are being held in prison [speculated that they tried to rescue the princes, or perhaps murdered them] (Pollard)
30 July Wednesday Buckingham leaves Richard (*after a row?), breaking off their relations. (Buckingham returns to Wales after this)
31 July Thursday  
1 August Friday  
2 August Saturday Richard leaves Gloucester
3 August Sunday  
4 August Monday  
5 August Tuesday  
6 August Wednesday  
7 August Thursday  
8 August Friday  
9 August Saturday  
10 August Sunday  
11 August Monday  
12 August Tuesday  
13 August Wednesday  
14 August Thursday  
15 August Friday  
16 August Saturday  
17 August Sunday  
18 August Monday  
19 August Tuesday  
20 August Wednesday  
21 August Thursday  
22 August Friday Possible date for the death of the 1674/1933 skeletons found in Westminster, according to (Pollard, 122).
23 August Saturday  
24 August Sunday  
25 August Monday  
26 August Tuesday  
27 August Wednesday  
28 August Thursday  
29 August Friday Richard and company in York.
Richard elevates his son, Edward as Prince of Wales (Croyden). Richard appoints Buckingham to head a Judicial Commission to try treason in London and several southeast counties.
30 August Saturday

Louis XI of France dies, believing that the Princes were murdered

31 August Sunday  
1 September Monday  
2 September Tuesday  
3 September Wednesday  
4 September Thursday  
5 September Friday  
6 September Saturday  
7 September Sunday Edward is invested as Prince of Wales.
8 September Monday  
9 September Tuesday  
10 September Wednesday  
11 September Thursday  
12 September Friday  
13 September Saturday  
14 September Sunday  
15 September Monday

Richard Ricart, recorder for Bristol records that the Princes were killed (Pollard, 122).

16 September Tuesday  
17 September Wednesday  
18 September Thursday  
19 September Friday  
20 September Saturday Richard sets out from York.
21 September Sunday  
22 September Monday  
23 September Tuesday  
24 September Wednesday Buckingham discusses liberating the princes in a letter to Henry Tudor
(Buckingham rebels in October)
25 September Thursday  
26 September Friday  
27 September Saturday  
28 September Sunday  
29 September Monday  
30 September Tuesday  
1 October Wednesday  
2 October Thursday

Richard's Birthday

3 October Friday  
4 October Saturday  
5 October Sunday  
6 October Monday  
7 October Tuesday  
8 October Wednesday Richard recommends Thomas Langton to the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury Cathedral as their next Bishop (Pollard).
Richard leaves Pontefract.
9 October Thursday  
10 October Friday Rebellion breaks out.
Risings in Kent.
11 October Saturday

Richard, at Lincoln, hears of Buckingham's rebellion.

12 October Sunday

Richard sends an order to Chancellor John Russell to deliver the Great Seal to him at Gratham.

13 October Monday  
14 October Tuesday  
15 October Wednesday  
16 October Thursday  
17 October Friday  
18 October Saturday  
19 October Sunday  
20 October Monday  
21 October Tuesday Royal army assembles at Leicester
22 October Wednesday  
23 October Thursday Rebellion reaches Wiltshire, as the Rebels are pushed westward.
24 October Friday  
25 October Saturday  
26 October Sunday  
27 October Monday  
28 October Tuesday

Sts Simon and Jude the Apostle
Rebellion over with Richard's entry into Salisbury

29 October Wednesday  
30 October Thursday  
31 October Friday  
1 November Saturday  
2 November Sunday

The summoned parliament is cancelled.
Buckingham is executed for his rebellion, in the market place at Salisbury.

3 November Monday

Rebellion is raised in Cornwall.

4 November Tuesday  
5 November Wednesday  
6 November Thursday  
7 November Friday  
8 November Saturday Richard reaches Exeter.
Henry Tudor makes an abortive attempt to land at Plymouth.
9 November Sunday  
10 November Monday  
11 November Tuesday  
12 November Wednesday  
13 November Thursday  
14 November Friday  
15 November Saturday  
16 November Sunday  
17 November Monday  
18 November Tuesday  
19 November Wednesday  
20 November Thursday  
21 November Friday  
22 November Saturday  
23 November Sunday  
24 November Monday  
25 November Tuesday

Richard returns to London

26 November Wednesday  
27 November Thursday  
28 November Friday  
29 November Saturday  
30 November Sunday  
1 December Monday

Mancini completes his De Occupatione Regni Angliper Riccardum Tercium

2 December Tuesday  
3 December Wednesday  
4 December Thursday  
5 December Friday  
6 December Saturday  
7 December Sunday  
8 December Monday  
9 December Tuesday

New writs are sent out summoning parliament.

10 December Wednesday  
11 December Thursday

John Hutton of Hunwick is appointed constable of Southampton Castle and given the manor of Bistern, confiscated from Sir William Beverly. While in Richard's service, he eventually gains all of Beverly's lands

12 December Friday  
13 December Saturday  
14 December Sunday  
15 December Monday  
16 December Tuesday  
17 December Wednesday  
18 December Thursday  
19 December Friday  
20 December Saturday  
21 December Sunday  
22 December Monday  
23 December Tuesday  
24 December Wednesday  
25 December Thursday Christmas
Henry Tudor swears to marry Elizabeth of York.
26 December Friday  
27 December Saturday  
28 December Sunday  
29 December Monday  
30 December Tuesday  
31 December Wednesday  
1483/4  
23 January  

Parliament seats.

? January   Titulus Regius passed. (n.b. discusses Princes in present tense?)
18 February   Richard writes to Sir John Mordaunt & William Salisbury to prepare for a war against Scotland (Pollard, 158)
22 February   Parliament rises.
1 March Sunday Agreement with the ex-Queen to let the princesses out of Sanctuary.
7 March Saturday Richard leaves London for Nottingham
20 March Friday Edward, Prince of Wales, dies suddenly.
? March Late Elizabeth Wydville leaves Sanctuary
1484  
25 March Wednesday Beginning of the new year.
27 April   Richard leaves Nottingham.
    Sunday Easter
Rumors are rampant about Prince's murder.
1 May   Richard arrives in York.
29 June   John Hutton is appointed Constable of Christchurch & Ringwood.
22 July   Albany and Douglas are defeated by the Scots at Lochmaben
24 July Friday "The Children" are mentioned as being at Sheriff Hutton, Yorkshire with Lord Lincoln. They receive the lion's share of the feast [There is some dispute as to what children these are, and may refer to the daughters of Edward IV.]
4 August   Richard returns to Westminster.
7 September   In Nottingham, Richard asks for peace with the Scots
11 September   Scots ambassadors are received at Nottingham by Richard.
14 September   A three year truce between Scotland and England is concluded.
29 September   Michaelmas
Richard returns to London.
  November   Richard returns to Westminster.
1484/5  
  January  

Queen Anne dies on the day of a Solar Eclipse (Croyland).
Richard is reputed to have begun negotiations to marry his niece, Elizabeth (Croyland).

9 March   Wardrobe accounts for clothes for "My Lord Bastard" - sized for a boy in mid teens [May refer to Richard's Illegitimate son, John].
1485  
11 May   Richard travels from Westminster towards Kennelworth.
9 June   Richard arrives in Nottingham from Coventry.
1 August Monday Henry Tudor sails from Harfleur
2 August Tuesday Henry Tudor arrives at Milford Haven, and heads up the west coast.
3 August Wednesday  
4 August Thursday  
5 August Friday  
6 August Saturday  
7 August Sunday  
8 August Monday  
9 August Tuesday  
10 August Wednesday  
11 August Thursday Richard hears of Henry's landing.
12 August Friday  
13 August Saturday  
14 August Sunday The Duke of Norfolk knows of the landing and starts mustering his troops to meet with Richard on the 16th.
15 August Monday  
16 August Tuesday Richard moves from Nottingham to Leicester
17 August Wednesday Henry Tudor arrives in Stafford.
18 August Thursday  
19 August Friday Henry Tudor arrives in Lichfield.
20 August Saturday  
21 August Sunday Richard leaves Leicester to intercept Henry Tudor.
22 August Monday Battle of Bosworth Field Richard is killed, along with Ratcliffe, Hutton and many others. Although Richard had the advantage of ground and numbers, he lost by the failure of Northumberland to engage [Although it is a matter of debate whether this was due to Treason or Richard's haste to attack].
23 August Tuesday  
24 August Wednesday  
25 August Thursday  
26 August Friday  
27 August Saturday Henry Tudor enters London.
  Early in Henry's Reign   Payments are made by Henry Tudor to "the Royal Bastard."

Sources:

The Croyland Chronicle.


This page was created by Marc Carlson