The following statements describe feelings
and perceptions about the experience of being a parent. Think
of each of the items in terms of how your relationship with
your child or children typically is. Please indicate the degree
to which you agree or disagree with the following items by placing
the appropriate number in the space provided.
1 = Strongly disagree 2 = Disagree 3
= Undecided 4 = Agree 5 = Strongly agree
____ 1. I am happy in my role as a parent.
____ 2. There is little or nothing I
wouldn't do for my child(ren) if it was necessary.
____ 3. Caring for my child(ren) sometimes
takes more time and energy than I have to give.
____ 4. I sometimes worry whether I am
doing enough for my child(ren).
____ 5. I feel close to my child(ren).
____ 6. I enjoy spending time with my
____ 7. My child(ren) is an important
source of affection for me.
____ 8. Having child(ren) gives me a
more certain and optimistic view for the future.
____ 9. The major source of stress in
my life is my child(ren).
____ 10. Having child(ren) leaves little
time and flexibility in my life.
____ 11. Having child(ren) has been a
____ 12. It is difficult to balance different
responsibilities because of my child(ren).
____ 13. The behavior of my child(ren)
is often embarrassing or stressful to me.
____ 14. If I had it to do over again,
I might decide not to have child(ren).
____ 15. I feel overwhelmed by the responsibility
of being a parent.
____ 16. Having child(ren) has meant
having too few choices and too little control over my life.
____ 17. I am satisfied as a parent.
____ 18. I find my child(ren) enjoyable.
To compute the parental stress score, items 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8,
17, and 18 should be reverse scored as follows: (1=5) (2=4)
(3=3) (4=2) (5=1). The item scores are then summed.
Reference: Berry, J. O., & Jones, W. H. (1995).
The Parental Stress Scale: Initial psychometric evidence. Journal
of Social and Personal Relationships, 12, 463-472.