A Man’s Boot.
The fore part of a boot is to be made the same as that of the shoe; but for the heel part, instead of rounding the inner sole, as that of the shoe, you must pare it plumb without any feather, and nearly flush to the edge of the last; then hole it rather below the half of the substance of the inner sole, and the number of stitches to be full as many as in the fore part.
In lasting the boot, you must be particular that the heel-seam is even, and that the side seams are at the same distance from the toe; and that the boot drops or bangs free and, easy.—In sewing, begin with the heel part, like that of the shoe, and let the sewing thread be well made, and in full proportion to the work.—After you have sewed, lay the stitches smooth on the rand side, and pare off the loose leather above the stitch; but mind to leave as much as you intend the width of the rand is to be, including the width of the sewing stitch, and let it be laid down hard and smooth, that it may bear hard against the rand. Then turn over the rand, and brace it down firm and hard. Set the rand as near as you can to the form the heel is to be. That is, if the heel is to be square or sloping, the rand must be so likewise. For it would look very awkward to see the rand project beyond the heel, or the heel beyond the rand; therefore the heel and the rand should be level, that the work may appear one solid piece. Though we find some who call themselves good hands are not very attentive to the above directions.
Now, after the sole is put on and the piece sole joined, (which should always be lapped over, for the reason given in the directions for the shoe,) pare them round the heel within a quarter of an inch to the rand, and on the sole side settle them well down with the thin end of the hammer, and run round the rand the plain rand setter, which will put it in order for stitching.
The size of the stitching thread must be in proportion to the work, and with very little twist. Likewise the awl is to be in proportion to the thread, and flat like the stitching awl for the fore part; but more crooked.—In stitching, be careful that the awl does not cut nor tear the sewing stitches. The number of stitches to be put in the rand, depends on the nature of the work, whether light or stout.—Too many stitches in the rand is of more harm than good: about twelve stitches to an inch is sufficient for a boot of a middling substance. After you have stitched and laid the stitches down smooth on the sole side, put on the lifts; but let them be quite dry, as directed in the making of the shoe, otherwise you will not have a firm heel; and after you have pared them close to the sole, run a thin bone between the rand and the sole before you begin to hole the heel; and in the act of holing, be careful not to bruise the rand, for the heel is to be sewed down to the sole. Three or four lifts are enough to sew together at one sewing, and if the heel is to be higher, make a second sewing from the upper lift you have already sewed.—After you have done sewing the heel and settled it, put a little paste on the rand, and scour the wax off the stitches with the rattle, but don’t force the stitch too bare; then pare the sole sloping from the grain to the flesh side, and pean down the sloping part to bear on the stitches of the rand.—Now pare the sole that is peaned to the stitch close to the stitch, and with the point of the knife take it off the rand below the stitch regularly all round the heel, without touching the rand: or, if you should not find your hand steady enough, you may run between the knife and the rand a thin horn, which will prevent the knife from injuring the rand: mind, in taking off the sole from the rand, that you do not take any more than the width of the rand is to be, and that you are to be governed by the nature of the work and the width of your rand iron.—Now, put a little soft paste on the rand, and with the rand iron set the rand well, and when done, wipe off the paste clean.—The rest of the heel is to be made as directed in the shoe. But always mind that the edge of the rand, next the upper leather, and the edge of the top piece are level; that is, if you put a flat ruler on the heel, that it will touch equally every part of the heel, from the upper edge of the rand to the edge of the top piece.—When you have finished the heel as directed in the shoe, prick the stitches of the rand, and with a little gum water set the rand with a hot iron; but be careful that the iron is not too hot, otherwise it will burn the work and the leather: nor let the guides of the iron be too keen so as to cut, nor the back guide be too long to rub too hard against the upper leather. After you have balled the heel, let the iron be gently run over the rand. When the boot is taken off the last, let the seat of the heel be made smooth from all pegs and other roughness; likewise, the fore part to be the same.
Udder this head I would wish to observe, (though custom has prevailed for many ages, with very few exceptions, never to
make a boot without a stitched rand,) that a boot made with a good firm blind
rand will be found in general to be. better than a stitched one.—My reason is
drawn from observation and experience, for I find a stitched rand very often
bruised and torn by the boot-jack; while the other stands the boot-jack without
any impression being hardly made on it.—But the heel and rand ought to be well
Cork Sole Boot or Shoe.
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