To make a Man’s Pump.
Let the stuff be fitted like that of the shoe, only that the soles must be moulded with the grain side to the last.—Here you are to begin with the sole, and not with the inner sole as in the shoe. With a tack, fix the sole to the waist of the last, with the grain of the sole inwards; them with the back of the knife mark the sole across, where the length of the heel is to be, and let the knife enter the sole on each side to the side of the last, which will divide the heel part from the fore part.
Pare the sole round the fore part close to the last, and to the form you intend it is to be, if it be to deviate from the shape of the last; and then with a piece of thin horn between the knife and the last, pare the sole plumb to the last.— Then with a shoulder stick mark off on the sole, a space that will be equal to the thickness of the upper leather and lining, with about an eighth of an inch for paring, and for the upper to lie free and easy at the edge of the sole: and from the mark, skive off to the edge. of the sole as much as will reduce it to the substance the edge is required. Likewise, as a regular guide for the awl in taking the hold on the sole, mark off on the sole within the first a space full equal to the substance of the upper leather and lining: and if the sole permit it for substance, cut a very shallow channel, and bole the sole round the fore part between the two marks; but be careful to let the hold on the sole side be very little wider than the substance of the upper leather and lining, for the same reason as given in the direction for the inner sole; which look to. Now, fix the upper-leather on the last with the lining-side outward, and last the upper-leather the same as in the direction given for the shoe; only you must not put in the whole of the fittings as in that of the shoe; but must leave out an instab-leather equal to the difference between the substance of the inner-sole and sole, otherwise the pump will be too wide; therefore a block last is not very convenient for to make a pump on. Let the thread be made in proportion to the work, in bigness, but rather full than otherwise: and in sewing, let. there be half cast on the upper-leather side; and let the stitch be drawn-in tight with the hand-leather, unless the pump be very light; for when the thread is round the hand-leather, and the fingers resting on the side of the knee, you have greater power to draw-in the thread with the awl-hand ; for, according to the law of mechanics, action and reaction are equal ~ therefore, even in light work it should be made use of, not only the work is firmer, but the seams will be closer, and the work will appear better.
When the pump is sewed, lay the stitches smooth and pare off the spare upper-leather and lining even with the sole, and rub it down smooth.
Then take the last out, and turn the pump, put the last in again and rise up the quarters, let the whole fitting be put in, and with the hammer work out the sole in all directions, and hammer it down even; then scour it out well, and run a thin bone between the edge of the sole and the the upper leather, and with the same bone, or a piece of flat iron, resting flat on the upper leather, close to the edge of the sole, and hammer it, or press the upper leather with it close to the last, and then slick the sole well to the last.
Now, take out the last, and put the inner sole on it and round the seat of the inner sole the same as that of the man's shoe; which see. The fore part must be rounded just as you think that it will cover the sewing stitch of the sole, for wider than that it will press too much against the upper-leather, and will cause it to project or bulge out too much beyond the edge of the sole; but still it must be as wide, so as to cover the seam of the sole. Then skive off a feather from the edge of the inner-sole, of the same breadth with the of the width of the sewing seam of the sole, so that the whole substance of the inner-sole may fill up the vacant space on the sole between the seam on each side. Put a small peg in the inner sole at the toe, and with the point of the knife make a short slit from the peg inward quite through the sole, that the last may slip out with ease when the pump is made.
Now take out the tacks, and paste the fore part of the inner sole, and put the last and inner sole into the fore part of the pump, and the careful that the inner sole is even, and that it covers the sewing seam of the sole regularly on each side; then secure it there by a tack put through the sole at the waist, and get up the quarters, and let them come up so high as that the lower part may be so much below the holed part of the seat of the inner sole, as what is sewed off them in the fore part: if higher, it will cause the quarters to sit loose at the side, when the last is out.
Now put the whole of the fittings in, and put the straps together, but do not strain them, and put a tack in at the heel seam - to secure the quarters in their place. With the hammer lay the sole smooth and even, and slick it down well to the inner sole. Then make the heel as directed in that of the shoe. When the heel is finished, take the thin bone and run it gently round the fore part to force the sole from the upper leather, and pare the edge of the sole a little sloping towards the sole; but if it be a very light or thin edge, let it incline towards the upper leather. Be careful not to pare the sole under the sewing stitch of the fore part, but let it be a trifle beyond the stitch, for you will make a better edge, and the pump will wear longer.—Then take the paring horn and put it between the knife and the upper leather, and pare off the ragged or fleshy part of the sole.
Now slick the edge of the sole down to the upper leather, on the sole side; and
put a little paste on the edge, and then with a suitable pump stick set the edge
well to the upper leather; so
that the print of the stick may be visible on the edge of the sole, and pressed
close to the upper leather; then wipe the paste clean off, and slick the edge
dry; but if you should feel the stick adhere or stick to the edge of the sole,
damp it with your tongue. When you have done with the edge, lot the sole be
slicked or buffed as custom or order shall direct; and the heel be finished as
in that of the shoe.—When the last is out, clean the seat of the pegs; let the
inner sole be made smooth in the fore part, and the upper leather laid close to
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