This page was created by Marc Carlson
It was last edited 9 June 2004
1483-1485. It's the end of the Wars of the Roses.
Edward IV suddenly dies in Westminster (Croyland), and begins
to lie in state
|11||April||Friday||Although he is still at Ludlow, Prince Edward is proclaimed King in London
Probable date of Hasting's letter to Richard being sent.
Richard (at Middleham) hears of Edward IV's death
Richard writes a letter of condolence and submission to the Queen about this time (Croyland)
|14||April||Monday||News of Edward IV's death reaches Prince Edward at Ludlow (Vergil),
as does the letter telling Rivers to bring the new King back to London by 1 May (Weir Princes, 69).
News of Edward IV's death reaches Buckingham at Brecon/Brecknok about this time.
|16||April||Wednesday||Edward writes to the Burgesses of Lynn (from Ludlow) telling them that he intends on
leaving shortly for London (Mancini)
Earliest probable date of Richard's receiving Hasting's letter (Weir Princes, 69)
First day of funeral ceremonies in London.
|20||April||Sunday||Edward IV finally buried.
The Queen and Dorset ("Brother uterine to the King") meet with the Council.
Hastings sends a letter to Richard, warning of the Wydville plot (Mancini).
Richard leaves Middleton for York with a body of 300 men.
|21||April||Monday||Richard arrives in York, where he holds a funeral service, swears his fealty to the
young king, Edward V, and has nobles of York swear fealty as well.
Richard listed as "Protector" on the Patent Rolls Richard's letter reaches Buckingham about this time (Weir Princes, 72)
Buckingham sends Humphrey Persivall, his messenger, to pledge his support to Richard (More) [More says that Persivall rode first to York, then back to Brecon, then to Nottingham to meet with Richard. These are minimum distances of 175 and a 120 miles respectively, much of which is over rather mountainous terrain.]
St. George's Day
|24||April||Thursday||Prince Edward, and Lord Rivers set out for London from Ludlow with 2000 men "to protect the prince." Also with them are Master (or Bishop?) John Alcock the Prince's Tutor, Edward's servant Vaughan, and Sir Richard Haute.|
|26||April||Saturday||Buckingham leaves Wales about this time with 300 men.
Richard arrives in Nottingham (Nottingham City Records). Here Humphrey Persivall delivers Buckingham's message, arranging to meet Richard in Northampton (More, Mancini). Richard writes to Edward to discuss how and where they are going to enter London.
|27||April||Sunday||At the instigation of the Queen and her son, Richard Grey, the Council sets the date for Edward's coronation on 4 May. Also Edward's Will proclaiming Richard Protector is reversed by the Council in favor of the Wydvilles.|
|29||April||Tuesday||Sir Edward Wydville, newly appointed Admiral of the Fleet, puts to sea to move against
French and Breton pirates in the Channel.
After a rapid ride from London to Northampton, Sir Richard Grey meets Rivers and Prince Edward at Northhampton and moves them to Stoney Stratford (Croyland).
Richard meets with Buckingham north of Northhampton, where all parties had prearranged to meet. Grey and Rivers return to Nottingham, where they meet with Richard and Buckingham. After a friendly dinner, during which Rivers suspected nothing to be amiss, Richard, Buckingham and Ratcliffe stay up discussing things. (Rous, More, Mancini, Vergil)
|30||April||Wednesday||Rivers wakes up to find himself under arrest.
Richard hastens to Stoney Stratford, and greets Edward. Richard and Buckingham arrest Grey, Vaughan, and Haute. Most of Edward's attendants and servants, including Alcock are ordered to return home [Rivers is sent to Richard's estate at Sheriff Hutton, in Yorkshire, while Grey is sent to Middleham.] (More, Mancini, Vergil, Croyland)
Richard writes letters to the Council and to Sir Edmund Shaa, Lord Mayor of London, telling them that he "rescued" the young King (Mancini). Richard writes a letter to Hastings (More).
News of the arrests reaches London late in the day.
Dorset vanishes from view, possibly to Brittany; possibly from fear of Hastings (Vergil)
Sts Philip and Jacob the Apostle
Richard listed as "Protector" on the Patent Rolls.
|4||May||Sunday||1st scheduled day for Edward's Coronation. Richard and Edward arrive in London to a Requiem Mass. Richard swears oath to Edward. Edward moves into the Bishop's Palace, St. Paul's Courtyard, and Richard moves into Baynard's Castle.|
Buckingham suggests that Edward take possession of the Tower.
Richard in London. The Council, at first possibly doubting Richard's intentions, meets. All of the Lords in London, Major, and Aldermen swear an oath of fealty to the young king. The coronation is pushed back to the 24th of June. The Council confirms Richard's Protector status. Bishop John Russell of Lincoln (author of Croyden Chronicles?) made Chancellor. Bishop Russell summons parliament for the 25th of June. Duke Henry of Buckingham receives and unprecedented grant of titles and positions.
Richard orders ships out to arrest Sir Edward Wydville who is out pirate hunting.
Edward "takes full possession" of the Tower.
|20||May||Tuesday||William, Lord Hastings is confirmed as Master of the Mint.|
|5||June||Thursday||Anne Neville, Richard's wife arrives in London. They move to Crosby Place/Crosby Hall, Bishopsgate.|
|8||June||Sunday||Council Meeting. (Richard not present?) Stillington reveals news of Pre-contract.
Negotiations with Queen in Sanctuary break down.
[It has been argued that Buckingham may have tried sounding out Hastings about this time about how he would feel with Richard (or maybe himself) as King. In response Hastings may have turned to the Wydvilles. This is no tangible proof of any of this other than Hasting's execution.]
|9||June||Monday||Long meeting with the "Lords of Westminster" (Council?) about pre-contract. Morton present. Beginnings of "Hastings-Morton" plot?|
|10||June||Tuesday||Richard writes letter to the "Citizens of York" asking for troops (More?).|
|11||June||Wednesday||Richard sends letter to Lord Neville asking for troops (More?).|
|12||June||Thursday||Richard's man, Ratcliffe, leaves London for York with the letter of 10 June.|
|13||June||Friday||Richard enters a full Council meeting and charges the Queen and Jane Shore with
practicing Sorcery against him. He has Hastings summarily executed as an accomplice to
that sorcery, and charges other Conspirators (including Lord Stanley, Thomas Rotherham,
Archbishop of York and John Morton, the Bishop of Ely) with Treason.
George Cely, London Merchant records some rumors including the "facts" that the Scots had invaded, the Bishop Ely was dead, and Hastings was Dead; as well as the "fears" that the King had been put to death, that the King's Brother, Richard of York, was in danger, the earl of Northumberland's life was threatened, and that the Duke of Gloucester was in peril (Cely).
Numerous witch trial sources indicated that Shore, the Bishop of Ely, the Queen, and the Countess of Richmond (Henry Tudor's mother) were tried in an ecclesiastical court for using sorcery to try to harm Richard (see here for sources)
|15||June||Sunday||Richard's letter arrives in York
Elizabeth/Jane Shore is forced to do penance for her part in the Sorcery and working with Hastings., and is then sent to prison.
|16||June||Monday||Richard surrounds Westminster with troops, threatening to seize Richard of York by force. Cardinal of Canterbury promises Duke of York's safety to Queen. Richard of York leaves Sanctuary, and is taken to be with his brother.|
|17||June||Tuesday||Writs of Supersedeas cancel Edward's coronation and the parliament scheduled for
Orders are sent out to execute Rivers, Grey and the other Wydville adherents seized at Northhampton and Stoney Stratford.
|20||June||Friday||Tower garrisoned by Richard's troops. Princes are moved into innermost portions of the
tower and dissapear from general view.
Richard claimed the title of King, and assumed the government (Croyland).
[Possible alternate date for Hasting's arrest and execution. This is a point of disagreement based on the fact that most of the chroniclers appear to put the execution after Richard's "liberating" Richard of York from Westminster. Also the records of the Mercer's amd Merchant adventurers appear to show Hastings alive on the 15th, also William Stoner's second letter (Alison Hanham).]
|21||June||Saturday||"York" troops are sent out.|
|22||June||Sunday||According to some sources this was
the 3rd and final planned date for Edward's Coronation. Word of the cancellation becomes
Dr. Shaw (Dr. Ralph Shaa), the Lord Mayor's brother, of Paul's Cross preaches about Edward's bastardy. The existence of the pre-contract revealed publicly.
(Troops arrive in London from the north?)
Entry in Anlaby Cartulary states that Edward V died on this day (Pollard, 123) [and clearly his reign did].
|23||June||Monday||After their trial, overseen by Ratcliff, Rivers & Grey (With Vaughn and Haute) are executed at Pontefract. Their bodies are thrown naked into a common grave|
The Nativity of St. John the Baptist
2nd planned date for Edward's Coronation.
Buckingham spreads information about pre-contract to Guildhall meeting.
|25||June||Wednesday||Unofficial assembly of Lords and Commons petition Richard at Bayard's Castle to assume
the throne. Richard exibits surprise and reluctance.
Expected date of troops arrival from York.
[Possible alternate date of Rivers, et al, execution.]
Richard goes to Westminster where an assemblage of Nobles, Clerics and Burghers present an official petition. Richard takes the King's Bench, declaring himself to be "King".
|27||June||Friday||Bishop John Russell of Lincoln is given the Great Seal and made Chancellor.|
|28||June||Saturday||Richard strips Richard of York of two of his titles.
A letter is sent to the Captain of Calais reminding him that his oath to Edward V is not valid (Pollard, 101).
|2||July||Wednesday||A northern army arrives in London with about 4000 men|
|3||July||Thursday||Anne returns to London from Middleham.|
|5||July||Saturday||Richard travels to Westminster|
|6||July||Sunday||Richard and Anne are crowned King and Queen by Thomas, Archbishop of Canterbury at St. Peter in Westminster.|
The Translation of St. Thomas the Martyr
Dominic Mancini returns to France about this time
|13||July||Sunday||Buckingham receives grant of lands via a claim of descent.|
|15||July||Tuesday||Buckingham becomes Constable of England.|
|18||July||Friday||Richard pays out money for care of the princes. (Wardrobe accounts ?)|
|20||July||Sunday||Richard sets out from Windsor on a Progress to the North.|
St. Mary Magdalene
Richard reaches Reading
|26||July||Saturday||(Richard dines at Magdalene College, Oxford)|
|29||July||Tuesday||Richard arrives at Gloucester, and meets with Buckingham.
Richard orders the trial of "certain persons" who are being held in prison [speculated that they tried to rescue the princes, or perhaps murdered them] (Pollard)
|30||July||Wednesday||Buckingham leaves Richard (*after a row?), breaking off their relations. (Buckingham returns to Wales after this)|
|2||August||Saturday||Richard leaves Gloucester|
|22||August||Friday||Possible date for the death of the 1674/1933 skeletons found in Westminster, according to (Pollard, 122).|
|29||August||Friday||Richard and company in York.
Richard elevates his son, Edward as Prince of Wales (Croyden). Richard appoints Buckingham to head a Judicial Commission to try treason in London and several southeast counties.
Louis XI of France dies, believing that the Princes were murdered
|7||September||Sunday||Edward is invested as Prince of Wales.|
Richard Ricart, recorder for Bristol records that the Princes were killed (Pollard, 122).
|20||September||Saturday||Richard sets out from York.|
|24||September||Wednesday||Buckingham discusses liberating the princes in a letter to Henry Tudor
(Buckingham rebels in October)
|8||October||Wednesday||Richard recommends Thomas Langton to the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury Cathedral as
their next Bishop (Pollard).
Richard leaves Pontefract.
|10||October||Friday||Rebellion breaks out.
Risings in Kent.
Richard, at Lincoln, hears of Buckingham's rebellion.
Richard sends an order to Chancellor John Russell to deliver the Great Seal to him at Gratham.
|21||October||Tuesday||Royal army assembles at Leicester|
|23||October||Thursday||Rebellion reaches Wiltshire, as the Rebels are pushed westward.|
Sts Simon and Jude the Apostle
The summoned parliament is cancelled.
Rebellion is raised in Cornwall.
|8||November||Saturday||Richard reaches Exeter.
Henry Tudor makes an abortive attempt to land at Plymouth.
Richard returns to London
Mancini completes his De Occupatione Regni Angliper Riccardum Tercium
New writs are sent out summoning parliament.
John Hutton of Hunwick is appointed constable of Southampton Castle and given the manor of Bistern, confiscated from Sir William Beverly. While in Richard's service, he eventually gains all of Beverly's lands
Henry Tudor swears to marry Elizabeth of York.
|?||January||Titulus Regius passed. (n.b. discusses Princes in present tense?)|
|18||February||Richard writes to Sir John Mordaunt & William Salisbury to prepare for a war against Scotland (Pollard, 158)|
|1||March||Sunday||Agreement with the ex-Queen to let the princesses out of Sanctuary.|
|7||March||Saturday||Richard leaves London for Nottingham|
|20||March||Friday||Edward, Prince of Wales, dies suddenly.|
|?||March||Late||Elizabeth Wydville leaves Sanctuary|
|25||March||Wednesday||Beginning of the new year.|
|27||April||Richard leaves Nottingham.|
Rumors are rampant about Prince's murder.
|1||May||Richard arrives in York.|
|29||June||John Hutton is appointed Constable of Christchurch & Ringwood.|
|22||July||Albany and Douglas are defeated by the Scots at Lochmaben|
|24||July||Friday||"The Children" are mentioned as being at Sheriff Hutton, Yorkshire with Lord Lincoln. They receive the lion's share of the feast [There is some dispute as to what children these are, and may refer to the daughters of Edward IV.]|
|4||August||Richard returns to Westminster.|
|7||September||In Nottingham, Richard asks for peace with the Scots|
|11||September||Scots ambassadors are received at Nottingham by Richard.|
|14||September||A three year truce between Scotland and England is concluded.|
Richard returns to London.
|November||Richard returns to Westminster.|
Queen Anne dies on the day of a Solar Eclipse (Croyland).
|9||March||Wardrobe accounts for clothes for "My Lord Bastard" - sized for a boy in mid teens [May refer to Richard's Illegitimate son, John].|
|11||May||Richard travels from Westminster towards Kennelworth.|
|9||June||Richard arrives in Nottingham from Coventry.|
|1||August||Monday||Henry Tudor sails from Harfleur|
|2||August||Tuesday||Henry Tudor arrives at Milford Haven, and heads up the west coast.|
|11||August||Thursday||Richard hears of Henry's landing.|
|14||August||Sunday||The Duke of Norfolk knows of the landing and starts mustering his troops to meet with Richard on the 16th.|
|16||August||Tuesday||Richard moves from Nottingham to Leicester|
|17||August||Wednesday||Henry Tudor arrives in Stafford.|
|19||August||Friday||Henry Tudor arrives in Lichfield.|
|21||August||Sunday||Richard leaves Leicester to intercept Henry Tudor.|
|22||August||Monday||Battle of Bosworth Field Richard is killed, along with Ratcliffe, Hutton and many others. Although Richard had the advantage of ground and numbers, he lost by the failure of Northumberland to engage [Although it is a matter of debate whether this was due to Treason or Richard's haste to attack].|
|27||August||Saturday||Henry Tudor enters London.|
|Early in Henry's Reign||Payments are made by Henry Tudor to "the Royal Bastard."|
The Croyland Chronicle.
This page was created by Marc Carlson